Andris Vilks holds a Master's degree in Natural Sciences (Geography) from the University of Latvia. Furthermore, he has received additional professional training at various investment, financial analysis, management and marketing courses, inter alia at Nordisk Landboskole in Odense, Denmark in 1991.
On 1 October 2020, the Saeima of the Republic of Latvia appointed Andris Vilks Member of the Council of Latvijas Banka. Prior to this, Andris Vilks worked as Senior Institutional Officer at the European Investment Bank (Regional EIB Group Office for the Baltic States, Vilnius), Member of the Board of Directors at the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London and the Executive Director at the European Investment Bank.
In 2010–2014, Andris Vilks was the Minister of Finance of the Republic of Latvia, as well as Governor for the Republic of Latvia at the World Bank Group, European Investment Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Nordic Investment Bank and Council of Europe Development Bank.
Andris Vilks was External Advisor on economic and financial affairs to Prime Minister of the Republic of Latvia Ivars Godmanis in 2008 and 2009, and to Prime Minister of the Republic of Latvia Valdis Dombrovskis in 2009 and 2010, as well as Economic Adviser to the Latvian Association of Large Cities.